The Abolition of Indentured Labour Migration

Extract from the Proceedings of the Imperial Leglislative Council, India, March 1912..  [Source: the Speeches and Writings of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Volume 1 (Asia Publishing House, 1962), pp. 349-368.]
In 1910, indentured migration to Natal was ended following a resolution in the Imperial Legislative Council proposed by the eminent Indian nationalist Gopal Krishna Gokhale. On 4th March 1912 , Gokhale moved a Resolution for the Prohibition of Indentured Labour altogether. The resolution was defeated, but the Viceroy Charles Hardinge agreed that early steps would be taken for the abolition of the system of Indian indentured labour in the remaining colonies where this system is still in force  and that the power of imprisonment for labour offences would be ended by the end of the year (where it has not already ended).
A final resolution for the prohibition of indentured labour was proposed by Madan Mohan Malaviya on 20th March 1916. This was also defeated, but with assurances were given once again by the Government of India that indentured migration would end once suitable alternative systems were in place. Indentured overseas migration was only finally halted in March 1917 under the Defence of India Ordinances due to a shortage of shipping and the need to raise recruitment to the Indian army. It was resumed briefly in exceptional circumstances after the war, the final shipment of indentured workers to Mauritius taking place in 1925.